Global Scientific Journals
The Lancet - Planetary Health
Estimation of pregnancy losses attributable to exposure to ambient fine particles in south Asia: an epidemiological case-control study
medRxiv by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL)
For the first time worldwide, the University of Florida succeeded in detecting living Sars-CoV-2 in the air and 5 meters away from the patient. This clearly proves aerosol transmission and standard ventilation in interior spaces is not enough. In addition, it was confirmed that the virus stays infectious for up to3 hours in the air.
The Lancet - Respiratory Medicine
The analysis shows that the most dangerous particles are those that are less than 0.1 µm in size - much smaller than usual aerosols (3-5 µm).
National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, USA
Aerosol and surface stability of HCoV-19 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to SARS-CoV-1
National Academy of Sciences, USA
The airborne lifetime of small speech droplets and their potential importance in SARS-CoV-2 transmission
National Academy of Sciences, USA
Infectious virus in exhaled breath of symptomatic seasonal influenza cases from a college community
The Journal of Clinical Investigation, USA
Metabolic effects of air pollution exposure and reversibility:
It has long been known that air pollution in city centers has negative effects on people. It has now been analyzed and proven by Johns Hopkins University that fine dust / car exhaust fumes lead to an increased risk of diabetes. We're exposed to that pollutants also in indoor environments, especially in big cities.
Science Mag - American Association For The Advancement of Science
Respiratory infections occur through the transmission of virus-containing droplets (>5 to 10 μm) and aerosols (≤5 μm) exhaled from infected individuals during breathing, speaking, coughing, and sneezing.
Université Laval in Québec, Canada
Clinical Infectious Diseases (2015; doi: 10.1093/cid/civ321) - Detection and Quantification of Airborne Norovirus During Outbreaks in Healthcare Facilities
Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Republic of Korea
Infection and Rapid Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Ferrets
Nature Research Journal
Aerosol emission and superemission during human speech increase with voice loudness
New England Journal of Medicine
Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1
JAMA Network - American Medical Association
Turbulent Gas Clouds and Respiratory Pathogen Emissions Potential Implications for Reducing Transmission of COVID-19
Scientists urge provinces to take action to curb aerosol spread of COVID-19. In an open letter sent Monday, more than 300 medical and scientific experts say provinces aren't educating the public enough about the risks of COVID-19 airborne transmissions in closed spaces.
Exposure to dirty air in the world's most polluted region linked to pregnancy loss, study finds
One person in the room with you has COVID-19. Here’s how long it takes to get infected - an interactive tool built by MIT researchers.
Los Angeles Times
Infected after 5 minutes, from 20 feet away: South Korea study shows coronavirus’ spread indoors
German aerosol scientists say these 6 indoor air guidelines will reduce COVID-19 spread
A woman spread COVID to 27 customers at a Starbucks. Its mask-wearing employees escaped infection:
"The virus may spread where people can’t wear masks while eating or drinking tea, as witnessed at the Starbucks in Paju,"
The Coronavirus Is Airborne Indoors. Why Are We Still Scrubbing Surfaces? Scientists who initially warned about contaminated surfaces now say that the virus spreads primarily through inhaled droplets, and that there is little to no evidence that deep cleaning mitigates the threat indoors.
‘A Smoking Gun’: Infectious Coronavirus Retrieved From Hospital Air
Six feet not far enough to stop virus transmission in light winds: study
Pulse News Korea
The Convergence for Emerging Virus Infection (CEVI) Research Group at the Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology finds neutralizing antibodies against COVID-19
You're most likely to catch the coronavirus after other infected people cough, sneeze, or talk near you
A new study shows that SARS-CoV-2 can linger in the air for hours and on some materials for days
The new coronavirus can likely remain airborne for some time
CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
How COVID-19 Spreads
COVID-19 spreads very easily from person to person
How easily a virus spreads from person to person can vary. The virus that causes COVID-19 appears to spread more efficiently than influenza but not as efficiently as measles, which is among the most contagious viruses known to affect people.
COVID-19 most commonly spreads during close contact
- People who are physically near (within 6 feet) a person with COVID-19 or have direct contact with that person are at greatest risk of infection.
- When people with COVID-19 cough, sneeze, sing, talk, or breathe they produce respiratory droplets. These droplets can range in size from larger droplets (some of which are visible) to smaller droplets. Small droplets can also form particles when they dry very quickly in the airstream.
- Infections occur mainly through exposure to respiratory droplets when a person is in close contact with someone who has COVID-19.
- Respiratory droplets cause infection when they are inhaled or deposited on mucous membranes, such as those that line the inside of the nose and mouth.
- As the respiratory droplets travel further from the person with COVID-19, the concentration of these droplets decreases. Larger droplets fall out of the air due to gravity. Smaller droplets and particles spread apart in the air.
- With passing time, the amount of infectious virus in respiratory droplets also decreases.
COVID-19 can sometimes be spread by airborne transmission
- Some infections can be spread by exposure to virus in small droplets and particles that can linger in the air for minutes to hours. These viruses may be able to infect people who are further than 6 feet away from the person who is infected or after that person has left the space.
- This kind of spread is referred to as airborne transmission and is an important way that infections like tuberculosis, measles, and chicken pox are spread.
- There is evidence that under certain conditions, people with COVID-19 seem to have infected others who were more than 6 feet away. These transmissions occurred within enclosed spaces that had inadequate ventilation. Sometimes the infected person was breathing heavily, for example while singing or exercising.
- Under these circumstances, scientists believe that the amount of infectious smaller droplet and particles produced by the people with COVID-19 became concentrated enough to spread the virus to other people. The people who were infected were in the same space during the same time or shortly after the person with COVID-19 had left.